Journal of Morphological Sciences
Journal of Morphological Sciences
Original Article

Mandibular and maxillary canine as a tool for sex determination


Downloads: 3
Views: 308


Introduction: Teeth measurement assist in the forensic and anthropological investigation to estimate age, confirm sex and race of a person. Maximum resistance to change in a natural disaster and also the most level of sexual dimorphism in canines makes them important in mentioned fields. Materials and Methods: During this study, an effort has been created to determine the sex of a person by using Canine Index (CI) which calculated for mandibular and maxillary canines. Mesio-distal (MD) breadth of canines and also the respective inter-canine distances (ICD) were tested using the independent samples t-test revealed significant sex dimorphism among the 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females) of Iranian population in the age group of 18-35 years. Conclusion: It is evident from our study that the maxillary canine index (MaxCI) is a valuable tool for determining sex.


forensic anthropology, sex determination, mandibular and maxillary canines.


ACHARYA, AB. and MAINALI, S. Univariate sex dimorphism in the Nepalese dentition and the use of discriminant functions in gender assessment. Forensic Science International, 2007, vol. 173, n. 1, p. 47-56. PMid:17320321.

ACHARYA, AB. and MAINALI, S. Limitations of the mandibular canine index in sex assessment. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 2009, vol. 16, n. 2, p. 67-69. PMid:19135000.

ADEYEMI, T. and ISIEKWE, MC. Comparing permanent tooth sizes (mesio-distal) of males and females in a Nigerian population. West African Journal of Medicine, 2003, vol. 22, n. 3, p. 219-221. PMid:14696944.

AL-RIFAIY, MQ. and ABDULLAH, MA. Dimorphism of mandibular and maxillary canine teeth in establishing sex identity. The Saudi Dental Journal, 1997, vol. 9, n. 1, p. 17-20.

ATEŞ, M., KARAMAN, F., IŞCAN, MY. and ERDEM, TL. Sexual differences in Turkish dentition. Legal Medicine, 2006, vol. 8, n. 5, p. 288-292. PMid:17027313.

BAKKANNAVAR, SM., MANJUNATH, S., NAYAK, VC. and PRADEEP KUMAR, G. AND G. P. KUMAR Canine index: a tool for sex determination. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2015, vol. 5, n. 4, p. 157-161.

BOAZ, K. and GUPTA, C. Dimorphism in human maxillary and madibular canines in establishment of gender. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 2009, vol. 1, n. 1, p. 42.

CAMPS, F. Identification by the skeletal structures. Gradwohl’s Legal Medicine, 1976, vol. 3, p. 110.

İŞCAN, MY. and KEDICI, PS. Sexual variation in bucco-lingual dimensions in Turkish dentition. Forensic Science International, 2003, vol. 137, n. 2-3, p. 160-164. PMid:14609652.

KAPILA, R., NAGESH, K., IYENGAR, AR. and MEHKRI, S. Sexual dimorphism in human mandibular canines: a radiomorphometric study in South Indian population. Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects., 2011, vol. 5, n. 2, p. 51-54. PMid:23019509.

KAUSHAL, S., PATNAIK, VV., SOOD, V. and AGNIHOTRI, G. Sex determination in north Indians using mandibular canine index. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, 2004, vol. 26, p. 45-49.

LATIF, M., RASHID, W., KAUR, B., AGGARWAL, A. and RASHID, A. Sex determination from mandibular canine index for the age group of 17-40 years in north Indian population. International Journal of Scientific Study, 2016, vol. 4, n. 2

LUND, H. and MÖRNSTAD, H. Gender determination by odontometrics in a Swedish population. The Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology, 1999, vol. 17, n. 2, p. 30-34. PMid:10709560.

MOSS, ML. and MOSS‐SALENTIJN, L. Analysis of developmental processes possibly related to human dental sexual dimorphism in permanent and deciduous canines. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1977, vol. 46, n. 3, p. 407-413. PMid:860753.

MUGHAL, I. and SAQIB, A. Mandibular canine index (MCI): its role in determining gender. The Professional Medical Journal, 2010, vol. 17, n. 3, p. 459-463.

MULLER, M., LUPI-PEGURIER, L., QUATREHOMME, G. and BOLLA, M. Odontometrical method useful in determining gender and dental alignment. Forensic Science International, 2001, vol. 121, n. 3, p. 194-197. PMid:11566424.

RAO, NG., RAO, NN., PAI, ML. and KOTIAN, MS. Mandibular canine index: a clue for establishing sex identity. Forensic Science International, 1989, vol. 42, n. 3, p. 249-254. PMid:2792982.

SCHWARTZ, GT. and DEAN, MC. Sexual dimorphism in modern human permanent teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2005, vol. 128, n. 2, p. 312-317. PMid:15861426.

5a32b6190e8825b9667bc49f jms Articles
Links & Downloads

J. Morphol. Sci.

Share this page
Page Sections