Brain weights in adult africans
Introduction: The average brain weight of adult humans, using Caucasian figures, is said to be between 1300g to 1400g. Few studies have however been done to make actual evaluations of brain weights in adult Africans. This study seeks to examine the weight of brains from people of African descent with respect to variations in sex and age in decades using autopsy specimens. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the weight of brains removed from both male and female adult patients during fresh autopsy of their bodies in our center over a ten year period was done. The study criteria required non-involvement of the central nervous system in the cause of death. The brains were grouped based on age in decades and further grouped into early, middle and late age groups. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20 statistics software. Results: A total of one hundred and sixteen brains were included in the study and the mean brain weight was 1280g with a range between 1015g to 1590g. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean brain weight of the different age groups. The average male brain was heavier than those of females and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The brain weight of adult Africans in our study is similar to that seen in Caucasians. There is no statistically significant difference in the brain weight of adults from early adulthood to the elderly adults. Male adults have statistically heavier brains than the females.
CURIATI, PK., TAMASHIRO, JH., SQUARZONI, P., DURAN, FL., SANTOS, LC., WAJNGARTEN, M., LEITE, CC., VALLADA, H., MENEZES, PR., SCAZUFCA, M., BUSATTO, GF. and ALVES, TC. Brain structural variability due to aging and gender in cognitively healthy elders: results from the São Paulo ageing and health study. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 2009, vol. 30, n. 10, p. 1850- 1856. PMid:19661175. http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A1727.
DEKABAN, AS. Changes in brain weights during the span of human life: relation of brain weights to body heights and body weights. Annals of Neurology, 1978, vol. 4, n. 4, p. 345-356. PMid:727739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410040410.
GIORGIO, A., SANTELI, L., TOMASSINI, V., BOSNELL, R., SMITH, S., DE STEFANO, N. and JOHANSEN-BERG, H. Age-related changes in grey and white matter structure throughout adulthood. NeuroImage. 2010, vol. 51, n. 3, p. 943-951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.004.
GONG, G., ROSA-NETO, P., CARBONELL, F., CHEN, ZJ., HE, Y. and EVANS, AC. Age- and gender-related differences in the cortical anatomical network. The Journal of Neuroscience, 2009, vol. 29, n. 50, p. 15684-15693. PMid:20016083. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2308-09.2009.
HARTMANN, P., RAMSEIER, A., GUDAT, F., MIHATSCH, MJ. and POLASEK, W. Normal weight of the brain in adults in relation to age, sex, body height and weight. Der Pathologe, 1994, vol. 15, n. 3, p. 165-170. PMid:8072950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002920050040.
JAHANSHAHI, M., GOLALIPOUR, MJ. and HEIDARI, K. The effect of ethnicity on facial anthropometry in Northern Iran. Singapore Medical Journal, 2008, vol. 49, n. 11, p. 940-943. PMid:19037564.
LUDERS, E., GASER, C., NARR, KL. and TOGA, AW. Why sex matters: brain size independent differences in gray matter distributions between men and women. The Journal of Neuroscience, 2009, vol. 29, n. 45, p. 14265-14270. PMid:19906974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2261-09.2009.
LÜDERS, E., STEINMETZ, H. and JÄNCKE, L. Brain size and grey matter volume in the healthy human brain. Neuroreport, 2002, vol. 13, n. 17, p. 2371-2374. PMid:12488829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200212030-00040.
ODOKUMA, IE., GERALD, F. and VHITERHIRE, C. Pattern of brain weight in three West African populations. TAF Preventive Medicine Bullletin, 2010, vol. 9, n. 4, p. 321-324
RABINOWICZ, T., DEAN, DE., PETETOT, JM. and DE COURTENMYERS, GM. Gender differences in the human cerebral cortex: more neurons in males; more processes in females. Journal of Child Neurology, 1999, vol. 14, n. 2, p. 98-107. PMid:10073431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088307389901400207.
RUSHTON, JP. and ANKNEY, CD. Brain size and cognitive ability: correlations with age, sex, social class, and race. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1996, vol. 3, n. 1, p. 21-36.
RUSHTON, JP. and ANKNEY, CD. Whole brain size and general mental ability: a review. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 2009, vol. 119, n. 5, p. 691-731. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450802325843. PMid:19283594.
SKULLERUD, K. Variations in the size of the human brain. Influence of age, sex, body length, body mass index, alcoholism, alzheimer changes, and cerebral atherosclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 1985, vol. 102, p. 1-94. PMid:3887832.
TERRY, RD., DETERESA, R. and HANSEN, LA. Neocortical cell counts in normal human adult aging. Annals of Neurology, 1987, vol. 21, n. 6, p. 530-539. PMid:3606042. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410210603.
ZAIDI, ZF. Gender differences in human brain: a review. The Open Anatomy Journal, 2010, vol. 2, p. 37-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1877609401002010037.