Journal of Morphological Sciences
Journal of Morphological Sciences
Case Report

Double inferior vena cava and associated venous anomalies: a case report


Downloads: 1
Views: 191


Introduction: Double inferior vena cava and associated venous anomalies are rare. Materials and Methods: In the present case study, during routine cadaveric dissection of the retroperitoneal region, an interesting venous anomalies was seen in the retroperitoneal region of a 70 years old embalmed male cadaver from the department of Anatomy, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Results: I describe here a case of double inferior vena cava (IVC) associated with double left suprarenal veins (LSRV) and double right testicular veins (RTV). Double IVC were connected with the transverse interiliac vein. While the upper LSRV is a tributary of IVC, the lower LSRV is a tributary of the left renal vein. Right testicular vein bifurcate at about the height of iliac cristae to form medial and lateral RTVs, which drain into right IVC at different heights. All these duplication and associated anomalies are assumed to occur during embryological development. Conclusion: These anomalies are rare, but the knowledge about the possibilities of such anomalies is of great importance during retroperitoneal surgeries, and interventional radiology.


double inferior vena cava, double suprarenal veins, double right testicular veins, venous anomalies


ANNE, N., PALLAPOTHU, R., HOLMES, R. and JOHNSON, MD. nferior vena cava duplication and deep venous thrombosis: case report and review of literature. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 2005, vol. 19, n. 5, p. 740-743. PMid:16034513.

BASS, JE., REDWINE, MD., KRAMER, LA., HUYNH, PT. and HARRIS, JH Jr. Spectrum of congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava: cross-sectional imaging findings. Radiographics, 2000, vol. 20, n. 3, p. 639-652. PMid:10835118.

BONJER, HJ., SORM, V., BERENDS, FJ., KAZEMIER, G., STEYERBERG, EW., DE HERDER, WW. and BRUINING, HA. Lessons learned from 111 consecutive cases. Annals of Surgery, 2000, vol. 232, n. 6, p. 796-803. PMid:11088074.

CHEN, H., EMURA, S., NAGASAKI, S. and KUBO, K. Double inferior vena cava with interiliac vein: a case report and literature review. Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica, 2012, vol. 88, n. 4, p. 147-151. PMid:22645906.

DAUNT, N. Adrenal vein sampling: how to make it quick, easy, and successful. Radiographics, 2005, vol. 25, suppl. 1, p. 143-158. PMid:16227488.

GAY, SB., ARMISTEAD, JP., WEBER, ME. and WILLIAMSON, BR. Left infrarenal region: anatomic variants, pathologic conditions, and diagnostic pitfalls. Radiographics, 1991, vol. 11, n. 4, p. 549-570. PMid:1887111.

INAMASU, J. and GUIOT, BH. Laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion: a review of outcome studies. Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery, 2005, vol. 48, n. 6, p. 340-347. PMid:16432783.

ITOH, M., MORIYAMA, H., TOKUNAGA, Y., MIYAMOTO, K., NAGATA, W., SATRIOTOMO, I., SHIMADA, K. and TAKEUCHI, Y. Embryological consideration of drainage of the left testicular vein into the ipsilateral renal vein. International Journal of Andrology, 2001, vol. 24, p. 142-152. PMid:11380703.

KAPETANAKIS, S., PAPADOPOULOS, C., GALANI, P., DIMITRAKOPOULOU, G. and FISKA, A. Anomalies of the inferior vena cava: a report of two cases and a short review of the literature. Folia Morphologica, 2010, vol. 69, n. 3, p. 123-127. PMid:21154280.

KENNEALEY, PT., SAIDI, RF., MARKMANN, JF., KO, DCC., KAWAI, T. and YEH, H. Duplicated inferior vena cava - something to consider in the evaluation of a living donor renal transplant. Dialysis & Transplantation, 2009, vol. 38, n. 10, p. 420-422.

KHAMANARONG, K., SAWATPANICH, T. and CHAICHUN, A. Double left suprarenal vein and its clinical implication. Srinagarind Medical Journal, 2015, vol. 30, n. 5, p. 90.

KLIMBERG, I. and WAJSMAN, Z. Duplicated inferior vena cava simulating retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in a patient with embryonal cell carcinoma of the testicle. The Journal of Urology, 1986, vol. 136, n. 3, p. 678-679. PMid:3735548.

KOUROUKIS, C. and LECLERC, JR. Pulmonary embolism with duplicated inferior vena cava. Chest, 1996, vol. 109, n. 4, p. 1111-1113. PMid:8635342.

MATHEWS, R., SMITH, PA., FISHMAN, EK. and MARSHALL, FF. Anomalies of the inferior vena cava and renal veins: embryologic and surgical consideration. Urology, 1999, vol. 53, n. 5, p. 873-880. PMid:10223477.

MAYO, J., GRAY, R., ST LOUIS, E., GROSMAN, H., MCLOUGHLIN, M. and WISE, D. Anomalies of the inferior vena cava. American Journal of Roentgenology, 1983, vol. 140, n. 2, p. 339-345. PMid:6336872.

MOORE, KL., PERSAUD, TVN. and TORCHIA, MG. The developing human clinically oriented embryology. 9th ed. Canada: Elsevier Saunders, 2013. p. 292-514.

NAYAK, BS., RAO, KGM., SHETTY, SD., SIRASANAGANDLA, SR., KUMAR, N. and GURU, A. Terminal bifurcation of the right testicular vein and left testicular arterio-venous anastomosis. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 2013, vol. 11, n. 42, p. 168-170. PMid:24096228.

NG, WT. and NG, SS. Double inferior vena cava: a report of three cases. Singapore Medical Journal, 2009, vol. 50, n. 6, p. e211-e213. PMid:19551299.

OERTEL, O. Teilweser fortbestand der unteren cardinalvenen beieinem erwachsenen. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 1928, vol. 65, p. 312-314.

OZTURK, NC., UZMANSEL, D., KARA, A. and OZTURK, H. Variation in the position, relation and vasculature of left suprarenal gland: a case report. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 2010, vol. 32, n. 10, p. 985-988. PMid:20162417.

RADERMECKER, MA., VAN DAMME, H., KERZMANN, A., CREEMERS, E. and LIMET, R. Association of abdominal aortic aneurysm, horseshoe kidneys, and left-sided inferior vena cava: report of two cases. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2008, vol. 47, n. 3, p. 645-648. PMid:18295119.

SÈBE, P., PEYROMAURE, M., RAYNAUD, A. and DELMAS, V. Anatomical variations in the drainage of the principal adrenal veins: the results of 88 venograms. Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 2002, vol. 24, n. 3-4, p. 222-225. PMid:12375078.

STACK, SP., ROSCH, J., COOK, DM., SHEPPARD, BC. and KELLER, FS. Anomalous left adrenal venous drainage directly into the inferior vena cava. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 2001, vol. 12, n. 3, p. 385-387. PMid:11287520.

SUZUKI, K., USHIYAMA, T., IHARA, H., KAGEYAMA, S., MUGIYA, S. and FUJITA, K. Complication of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 75 patients treated by the same surgeon. European Urology, 1999, vol. 36, p. 40-47. PMid:10364654.

TAKAGI, T., NOZAKA, Y. and OHSAWA, T. Double superior venae cavae with bilateral inferior vena cavae. Acta Anatomica Nipponica, 1982, vol. 57, n. 1, p. 9-14. PMid:7090729.

TUBBS, RS., SALTER, ES. and OAKES, WJ. Unusual drainage of the testicular veins. Clinical Anatomy, 2005, vol. 18, n. 7, p. 536-539. PMid:16015633.

5a32afe20e88258f627bc49d jms Articles
Links & Downloads

J. Morphol. Sci.

Share this page
Page Sections