Journal of Morphological Sciences
Journal of Morphological Sciences
Original Article


Claudio Roberto Simon; Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro Ramos

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Since the first evidence that physiological cell death is a normal feature of cell life, there has been considerable effort in trying to define the mechanisms, regulation and morphology of cell death events. In nearly four decades of investigation, several types of cell death have been described in a wide range of organisms and cells, and this has led to great deal of confusion regarding the morphology and regulation of these processes. Historically, cell death has been characterized as physiological or accidental (necrosis). However, in the past five years, several attempts have been made to define the types of cell death based on mechanistic and morphological criteria. Currently, at least three types of cell death apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are recognized and share some mechanisms in common. Thus, cell death is more than simply being a caspase-mediated phenomenon. The aim of this review is to discuss recent findings on how cells choose to die in different biological contexts, and to consider the morphological changes associated with each cell type of cell death.


Apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, programmed cell death, programmed necrosis
587cb45c7f8c9d0d058b4622 jms Articles
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J. Morphol. Sci.

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